adaptive immunity

The Problem of Original Antigenic Sin

by Gertrud U. Rey Once the innate immune system senses a never-seen-before pathogen as new, it engages elements of the adaptive immune response. These adaptive immunity elements coordinate over time to develop a response that protects from re-infection and disease upon a second exposure to the same pathogen. The second exposure will immediately lead to …

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How the Viruses Within Us Protect Us From Other Viruses

by Gertrud U. Rey Did you know that eight percent of the human genome consists of DNA sequences that are derived from retroviruses? These “endogenous retroviruses” (ERVs) represent concrete evidence for retroviral infections that occurred in our ancestors. Although ERVs have no viral activity, an accumulating body of evidence suggests that they are not entirely …

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Immune 2: Lymphocytes after dark

Cindy, Steph, and Vincent reveal that lymphocyte trafficking through lymph nodes and lymph is circadian – it is dependent on the time of day. <span data-mce-type=”bookmark” class=”mce_SELRES_start”></span> Click arrow to play Download Immune 2 (53 MB .mp3, 87 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, RSS, email Become a patron of Immune! Show notes at

Natural antibody protects against viral infection

Antibodies produced by infection with a virus, or after immunization with viral vaccines, are effective at preventing viral disease. However humans and higher primates contain “natural antibodies” which are present in serum before viral infection. Natural antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading to lysis of enveloped virus particles long before the adaptive immune …

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Adaptive immune defenses: Antibodies

With the looming prospect of mass immunization against influenza, it’s important to understand how vaccines work. To do this we must have a good understanding of adaptive immune defenses. Today we’ll begin a discussion of the humoral arm of the adaptive immune response – antibodies. Antibodies are large proteins produced by vertebrates that play important …

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Adaptive immune defenses

The immune response to viral infection comprises innate and adaptive defenses. The innate response, which we have discussed previously, functions continuously in a normal host without exposure to any virus. Most viral infections are controlled by the innate immune system. However, if viral replication outpaces innate defenses, the adaptive response must be mobilized. The adaptive …

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