Virology 101

A new class is starting at virology blog: Virology 101.

I began this blog in 2004, to give back what I’ve learned from studying viruses for 30+ years. I’ve written many posts on basic virology, but they tend to disappear with time. To remedy this problem, I’ve collected all these posts with links back to the original article, arranged by topic. They are typically short and easy to read; if you start from the top, soon you will have a good basic understanding of virology.

I’ve also included relevant episodes of the podcast TWiV, where we discuss basic virology about once a month.

For the more adventurous, see the video podcasts from my Columbia University virology course, W3310. This course is taught in the spring semester each year. I’ve also included some of my other lectures to medical and undergraduate students.

If you are specifically interested in influenza virus, there is always Influenza 101.

Class will always be in session: there is much more to come.

With this virology course you also get access to a virology professor. If you have any questions, send them to vincent@virology.ws.

Basic Background Information

What is a virus? (W3301)

What is a virus?

Are viruses living?

Discovery of viruses

What color is a virus?

How viruses are classified

Virus classification (TWiV 43)

Simplifying virus classification: The Baltimore system

Viral genomes (TWiV 49)

Genomes and genetics (W3310)

The infectious cycle lecture (W3310)

Measurement (also see the virology toolbox)

Detecting viruses: The plaque assay

How many viruses are needed to form a plaque?

Measurement of viruses by end-point dilution assay

Multiplicity of Infection

The western blot

Detection of antigens or antibodies by ELISA

Detecting viral proteins in infected cells or tissues by immunostaining

Virus Structure

Virus structure (TWiV 39)

Virus structure (W3310)

Attachment and Entry into Cells

Virus entry into cells (TWiV 46)

Attachment and entry (W3310)

Nucleic Acid Synthesis

RNA synthesis (W3310)

Making viral RNA (TWiV 60)

Making viral DNA (TWiV 96)

Making viral DNA II (TWiV 106)

Viral DNA Synthesis (W3310)

Transcription (TWiV 162)

Reverse transcription (W3310)

Reverse transcription (TWiV 66)

Transcription and RNA processing (W3310)

Processing viral RNA (TWiV 216)

Protein synthesis

Translation (W3310)

Virion Assembly

Assembly (W3310)

Pathogenesis and Immunity

Infection Basics (W3310)

Host Defense (W3310)

Virus-Host Interactions (W3310)

Viral Pathogenesis (Medical school lecture)

Acute Infections (W3310)

Antigenic variation explains recurring acute infections

HIV Pathogenesis (W3310)
Transformation and Oncogenesis (W3310)

Innate sensors of DNA

Immunopathology: Too much of a good thing

Innate immune defenses

The inflammatory response

Adaptive immune defenses

Adaptive immune defenses: Antibodies

Virus neutralization by antibodies

The complement system

C1q and the collectins

Natural antibody protects against viral infection

Prevention and Control

Vaccines (W3310)

Antiviral Drugs (W3310)

Tamiflu-resistant pandemic influenza H1N1 virus selected by prophylaxis

Discussion of new HCV antiviral on Futures in Biotech 60

Evolution and Emergence

Viral Evolution (W3310)

Emerging Viruses (W3310)

Viruses and the tree of life

The abundant and diverse viruses of the seas

Chikungunya: An exotic virus on the move

Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever virus from Southern Africa

The error-prone ways of RNA synthesis

The quasispecies concept

Viral quasispecies and bottlenecks

The number of possible viral variants

Pushing viruses over the error threshold

Increased fidelity reduces viral fitness

Why don’t DNA based organisms discard error repair?

The trajectory of evolution

Virulence: A positive or negative trait for evolution?

Topics that don’t fit anywhere else

Unusual Infectious Agents (W3310)

Picornaviruses

79 thoughts on “Virology 101”

  1. Katherine Holland

    Submit Paid Blog Post”Hi

    Just checking in to see if you received my last email?

    I am dropping you a line to confirm if you accept paid quality guest posts on your
    website virology.ws. Topic will be related to your site theme and wish to have a
    backlink to our website pertinent to gambling links.

    What could be the price for that kind of advertisement?

    Note : I will be glad to hear from you if there are more sites to offer. Please mention
    them with their prices.

    Thanks”

  2. “Greetings,

    We would like to inquire about the possibility of advertising through a hosted article on your website virology.ws. The content of the article will
    be tailored to align with the theme of your site and will feature a hyperlink leading to a gambling site. The link should be placed as a do-follow link,
    and the article shouldn’t be marked as sponsored

    Could you please provide us with the pricing information for this type of advertisement?

    Additionally, if you do not allow links to gambling sites, we would still be interested in advertising and kindly request that you provide a separate rate for a regular hyperlink.

    Looking forward to hearing back from you soon
    Kind regards,”

  3. “Hello,

    Hope you’re doing today.

    I am particularly fascinated to make contributions to a guest posting on your web page virology.ws.

    In case you are interested in this concept allow me know expected charges to post a guest article with a link leading to our gambling site.

    Note: In case you have more sites to offer, please send those as well along with the prices.

    Allow me to know the way it sounds

    With Regards”

  4. FAST EFFECTIVE WAY TO GET CURED FROM HERPES VIRUS

    Hello! I’m very excited to share what worked for me to everyone. I’m completely cured from my HSV1&2 with the use of natural medicine. I have used Oregano oil, Coconut oil, Acyclovir, Valacyclovir, Famciclovir and some other products/supplements and it hasn’t helped ever since I was diagnosed. I got outbreaks frequently and was completely devastated and I went online for a possible cure and how to get rid of Herpes.

    On a fateful day after taking my bath, I took my phone and was going through some research, I bumped into a testimonial of a Herbs doctor { Dr Awase } who cures diverse diseases/viruses with Herbal medication. I was hopeful but also doubted the claim. But after a while I thought “what do I have to lose?” so I decided to reach out. He prepared a cure using roots and herbs which I steadily took for 14days as prescribed by him. I am quite glad I decided to reach out because I am totally cured from Herpes after a medical checkup was done by my Dr.

    So I’ve decided to make a quick testimony for anyone out there who is probably suffering from an illness they can’t handle to reach out to Dr Awase. He specializes in curing lots of illnesses such as HIV, ENDOMETRIOSIS, PCOS, OVARIAN CYST, INFERTILITY, HEPATITIS A,B,C and lots more. I’m here to let you all know that you can also be cured just like me and you don’t have to live with any sort of illness for the rest of your life. To reach out, Contact via

    Email:- dr.awaseherbalhome @ gmail .com

  5. Here is my testimony on how to get cured from HSV1&2. I got diagnose of HSV-2 and I have been taking pills to prevent an outbreak. I never stop searching for a cure because I strongly believe that there is something somewhere that can get rid of it completely and in February this year, I ran through some comments on a blog about Dr Osato herbal cure and a lot of people commented about him having the herbs that can get rid of herpes completely. I was excited and I contacted Dr Osato and ordered the cure for myself and he sent it to me through UPS and gave me instructions on how to take it which I rightly followed and behold I went for checkup after two weeks of taking the herbs and my result shows NEGATIVE. My doctor confirmed with me that I am totally clear from HSV-2. You can as well contact Dr Osato to get the herbal cure from him. His website is osatoherbalcure.wordpress. com

  6. Herpes has been one of the most significant virus in the US and it’s spreading really fast, and the government are only producing medical drugs that can suppress it but rather keep on eliminating the African herbal doctors who were able to discover a way to completely cure the virus…I’m delighted to be finally cured from herpes after I applied for doctor excel herbal medicine which was sent to me to drink for days,,, I went back a month later to confirm my status and I tested negative severally and all the obvious symptoms were gone.. If I could get cured why do you think You can’t?, you believe in the lying government and medical scientists and keep spending money on buying their stupid pills.. I’m glad I am finally cured from it forever…Get to know about doctor excel and his herbal formula on his Website… excelherbalcure. com

  7. I’m recommending Dr Osato to everyone who has herpes simplex virus to get the cure from him. I was diagnosed with genital herpes in 2019 and i have been searching and asking questions to see if i could get something to cure the disease because i did not believe what the doctors say that no cure is found yet. I came across a comment on Youtube and the person testified how she was cured from herpes and hpv after using Dr Osato herbal medicine. I quickly contacted Dr Osato and explained my problem to him and he prepared the herbs and sent it to me through UPS and gave me instructions on how to use it and told me to go for checkup after usage which i did after two weeks of taking the herbal medicine and my result was NEGATIVE. I waited another month and retested, the result was still NEGATIVE and my doctor told me that I am completely free from herpes. Am so happy and grateful to Dr Osato for what he has done for me and i will continue to share this for people out there to know that there is a cure for herpes. You can contact Dr Osato on his website osatoherbalcure.wordpress. com

  8. Maria Stehman

    Hi everyone, I’m here to give my own verdict about the herbal cure Dr Osato is sending out to people to cure them of Herpes and HIV. Dr Osato herbal medicine is the best remedy for Herpes-1&2 and HIV/AIDS, I was a carrier of Herpes and I saw a testimony on blog on how Dr Osato cure Herpes with herbs, I decided to have a contact with him and asked him for solutions and he started the remedy for my health and prepare the herbal cure for me and send it to me through UPS and he gave me instructions on how to use it which i rightly followed and after 14days of taking the herbal medicine i went for a blood test and my result was Negative. I waited for 3months to confirm my result before sharing this testimony and also to observe myself if i would have an outbreak and nothing came out from my body, i went for another blood test after 3 months of testing Negative and the result still shows Herpes Negative and my doctor was pretty sure i was totally cured from herpes and he confirm with me that I’m free from herpes. Thank God, now everything is fine, I’m cured by Dr Osato herbal medicine, I’m very thankful to Dr Osato and i will not stop publishing his name on the internet because of the good work he did for me, You can contact Dr Osato on his website is osatoherbalcure.wordpress. com

  9. It was difficult to trust someone you haven’t met or seen before and this herbalist has restored my life by curing me from a nasty virus called herpes, He has helped me and my friend in situations of Herpes, he cured me with his herbal med which he sent me to drinks for several days and my recent lab tests shows that I”m negative and all the obvious sores disappeared immediately I started drinking the meds. There is no harm in trying to get help curing your mess so get to know about this herbalist and his meds on his web if you’re in same situation because he’s got potentials in putting herbs together to cure herpes virus. his contact number +1(509) 883 9893 his website (https://excelherbalcure.com)

  10. Darien mitchel

    Natural herbs are truly the remedy for HSV-1&2 and Dr Osato herbal medicine cures HSV within two weeks. I just tested Negative for HSV-2 after using Dr Osato herbal meds for two weeks! To place an order and get yours today visit his website osatoherbalcure.wordpress. com

  11. I’m very excited to inform everyone that I’m completely cured from HSV1&2 recently with a strong and active herbal medicine ordered from a powerful herbalist called Dr Balbosa whom my colleague at work introduced me to Dr. BALBOSA completely cured the virus away from my nervous system and I tested negative after 14 days of using the herbal medicine. I’m here to let everyone know that herpes virus has a complete cure and I got rid of it with the help of Dr Balbosa and his herbal exploit. never give up because there is a cure for HERPES 1 & 2…you can contact Dr. BALBOSA from any part of the world on
    WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome. com

  12. I’m very excited to inform everyone that I’m completely cured from HSV1&2 recently with a strong and active herbal medicine ordered from a powerful herbalist called Dr Balbosa whom my colleague at work introduced me to Dr. BALBOSA completely cured the virus away from my nervous system and I tested negative after 14 days of using the herbal medicine. I’m here to let everyone know that herpes virus has a complete cure and I got rid of it with the help of Dr Balbosa and his herbal exploit. never give up because there is a cure for HERPES 1 & 2…you can contact Dr. BALBOSA from any part of the world on: WHATSAPP/CALL: +1 520-502-9758
    WEBSITE: https://balbosasolutionhome. com

  13. ATTENTION PLEASE!!!

    Am so glad to be expressing my profound gratitude to a man that is so concerned about other people’s well being. I was suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE II) The doctors keep telling me that there is no cure but i believe that there is a cure somewhere and they don’t want people to get cured. I tried searching online if i could see anything that will help me and a comment on YouTube on how Dr Osaro help to cure herpes with herbs and i also saw so many comments about him on many web pages on how he had helped and cured so many people suffering from HERPES 1$2, HPV, CANCER, HIV/AIDS, COLD SORE etc. So I contacted him through his email and I shared my problems with him and he sent me the herbs through UPS and gave me instructions on how to use it. It took me two weeks to finish the herbs and after I finished using it, he told me to go for a medical test, behold the result was negative, now I am HERPES VIRUS free. I just want to use this platform to thank Dr. Osaro for curing me from that horrible disease and also for exposing his herbal cure to the world at large, please you can as well contact Dr Osaro on his email below.

    Name: Dr. Osaro Enoma
    Email: natureroot.herbs@gmail.com
    PHONE/WHATS APP : +(2348077286863}

    Dr Osaro herbs is the perfect remedy for Herpes1&2, HPV, HIV and other diseases.

  14. First, I want to complement this site administrator for creating this platform for us to express our feelings. Herpes is a serious and recurring disease which can’t be cured through drugs or injections not even surgery by the American doctors surgeon but the best way to deal with herpes is by taking natural medicine from dr excel the greatest herbalist doctor in the world and is only few American doctors that know about this herbal medicine from him .. I have read about excel who can cure herpes disease with his herbal medicine. you’ll should contact him for his herbal medicine because I’m a living testimony and I was cured of herpes. I sent him my address which he requested and he sent me his medicine through DHL courier delivery which I took for days and today when I went for test I was tested negative. you can reach him through his website and WhatsApp number +1 509 883 9893 read about him on his website: https://excelherbalcure.com

  15. The long awaited cure for HERPES, HIV, HPV, HSV1&2, DIABETES, CANCER, VAGINAL INFECTION is finally over. Dr Osato has come to save mankind with the cure and he is highly recommended all over the world for the good work he is doing in people’s lives by curing them from different types of diseases/viruses. He also cured me from Genital Herpes with his herbal medication. If you are in need of the cure, kindly contact Dr Osato. Don’t die in silence thinking that there is no cure for herpes1&2. Contact Dr Osato today and get rid of that horrible disease/virus from your body. His website is https://osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com

  16. I read on the internet about a traditional herbal man who cures herpes virus with herbal medicine and I had my doubts and was skeptical but unlike many I decided to place my destiny in my own hands by going further to contact and follow his instructions. This is the words of someone who has felt the pains of being infected and affected with genital Herpes virus and finally got cured after drinking a natural herbal medicine from dr excel the herbalist after being diagnosed for 4years. I am a witness today that herbal medication can cure genital herpes because I have just test negative for the second time and all the symptoms were totally gone. you should contact Doctor Excel by visiting his website Excelherbalcure.com or call me directly on him phone +1 509 883 9893

  17. I’m here to share my encounter with herpes virus. I was heartbroken and depressed when I got diagnosed of Genital herpes.. I was given some antiviral pills to “take called acyclovir which even made me more sick and gave me headaches to the point of me puking. I searched everywhere for a solution then I came across this herbal doctor called Excel who gave me hope that he can cure me totally from the virus with his herbal medication so I gave it a try and he prepared and send me the medication through DHL and I drink it for several days the sores were the first to go away and I have just tested negative to the virus for the second time. believe me this is real! Get to know about this herbal man and his medication on his website Excelherbalcure.com

  18. Cresia Sutherland

    I want to share this great testimony to the world on how Dr Osato cured me from Herpes2 with his herbs, I was nervous when I first contacted him about the cure for HSV2 but I decided to give him a try because I was desperate to get cured and be free from HSV2. Dr Osato prepared the cure and sent it to me through UPS,which I used just the way Dr Osato instructed me and thank God today I am a beneficiary of this cure. I went back to the hospital after 14days of taking the herbs and I tested Herpes2 Negative. So I will tell you all who are looking for a cure to his/her HSV1&2 that Dr Osato took research before he could finally get the solution to it and a lot of people are benefiting from him right now. He also cured my friend from HPV. Dr Osato heals with natural herbs. Please i urge you to contact him now through his website osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com and he is capable of curing HIV/AIDS, HERPES, HPV, HSV1&2, CANCER of all kinds,DIABETES and so many other infections.

  19. Martha Jecorick

    DR. OSATO`S CURE FOR HERPES1&2 – A NATURAL WAY TO GET HERPES1&2 CURED. If you have been looking for ways to naturally get rid of the herpes simplex virus from your body totally, then you are welcome to read further. Let’s face reality here, you have tried so many counter drugs and you are confused, weak and angry because nothing seems to work. Good News For you my friend…. Yes, I came with good news that will liberate you from the pains and stress of herpes outbreak, you will get total cure from this virus using Dr. Osato Herbal Methodology. Who is Dr. Osato? You may ask. Dr. Osato is a herbalist and a naturalist. He researched and identified some herbs and established a unique methodology to healing the human body using Herbal medicine that was confidently entrenched in his over 30 years of experience. According to him, he has the cure for so many diseases/virus like GENITAL HERPES, HIV, DIABETES, CANCER, HPV, HSV1&2, GENITAL WART, SHINGLES, VAGINAL INFECTION and so many more. You can also contact him through his website: https://osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com  I am using this medium to inform everyone how to get treated of herpes using Dr Osato recommended Herbal methodology.

  20. ATTENTION PLEASE!!!

    Am so glad to be expressing my profound gratitude to a man that is so concerned about other people’s well being. I was suffering from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE II) The doctors keep telling me that there is no cure but i believe that there is a cure somewhere and they don’t want people to get cured. I tried searching online if i could see anything that will help me and a comment on YouTube on how Dr Osaro help to cure herpes with herbs and i also saw so many comments about him on many web pages on how he had helped and cured so many people suffering from HERPES 1$2, HPV, CANCER, HIV/AIDS, COLD SORE etc. So I contacted him through his email and I shared my problems with him and he sent me the herbs through UPS and gave me instructions on how to use it. It took me two weeks to finish the herbs and after I finished using it, he told me to go for a medical test, behold the result was negative, now I am HERPES VIRUS free. I just want to use this platform to thank Dr. Osaro for curing me from that horrible disease and also for exposing his herbal cure to the world at large, please you can as well contact Dr Osaro on his email below.

    Name: Dr. Enoma Yare
    Email: natureroot.herbs@gmail.com
    PHONE/WHATS APP : +(2348077286863}

    Dr Osaro herbs is the perfect remedy for Herpes1&2, HPV, HIV and other diseases.

  21. I have been suffering from #Herpes disease for the last 2 years without hope for a cure and I was miserable until early this year. I was checking on new developments and cures then I found out how a Great man called doctor Ebose  has healed his patients using natural herbal remedies. I Contacted him through his email ebosehealer@gmail.com. He  prepare the herbal remedy and sent it to me in LA and after taking the herbal remedy as he instructed i went back to the hospital few weeks later and the test result shows I’m negative and now I’m completely free of genital Herpesthanks to doctor ebose for his urgent response.  

  22. I am so delighted to be completely cured of Herpes Simplex Virus 1/2. After having it since March 4th of 2021. I did some online research when I came Across Dr. Ofenmu Herbal Exploits. I was amazed when I Came across some of his Works And those he has helped, I decided to Contact him For help, Which He Kindly did Wholeheartedly, I am glad To be finally healed Of HSV 1/2 through Dr. Ofenmu. Traditional Herbal Mixture. Contact https://drofenmu.simdif.com/

  23. Martha Jecorick

    DR. OSATO`S CURE FOR HERPES1&2 – A NATURAL WAY TO GET HERPES1&2 CURED. If you have been looking for ways to naturally get rid of the herpes simplex virus from your body totally, then you are welcome to read further. Let’s face reality here, you have tried so many counter drugs and you are confused, weak and angry because nothing seems to work. Good News For you my friend…. Yes, I came with good news that will liberate you from the pains and stress of herpes outbreak, you will get total cure from this virus using Dr. Osato Herbal Methodology. Who is Dr. Osato? You may ask. Dr. Osato is a herbalist and a naturalist. He researched and identified some herbs and established a unique methodology to healing the human body using Herbal medicine that was confidently entrenched in his over 30 years of experience. According to him, he has the cure for so many diseases/virus like GENITAL HERPES, HIV, DIABETES, CANCER, HPV, HSV1&2, GENITAL WART, SHINGLES, VAGINAL INFECTION and so many more. You can contact him through his website: https://osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com  I am using this medium to inform everyone how to get treated of herpes using Dr Osato recommended Herbal methodology.

  24. NATURAL HERBS IS THE REAL DEAL IN CURING HERPES-1&2, HPV, HIV, DAIBETES and CANCER…Contact Dr Osato to get the natural herbs to cure your herpes-1&2. I got the herbs from Dr Osato and I made use of it with the instructions he gave to me on how to use the natural herbal product, after usage I went for a checkup and my result was Negative and all the symptoms of herpes were completely gone from my body. I was cured from herpes-1&2 after using Dr Osato natural herbal medicine. You can contact Dr Osato to get the herbal medicine from him and his website is https://osatoherbalcure.wordpress.com

  25. I found out that herbal medicine is the best to get rid of herpes because I have just been cured from the virus, I took the healing process by contacting dr excel for natural treatment which really works wonders by neutralizing the virus, I have not feel the horrible symptoms and outbreaks anymore and my medical doctor told me the virus is gone after several test, I’m glad I finally got cured from this nasty disease. anyone with herpes should get in touch with this herbal man to get cured from that virus. his website: https://excelherbalcure.com

  26. I read on the internet about a traditional herbal man who cures herpes virus with herbal medicine and I had my doubts and was skeptical but unlike many I decided to place my destiny in my own hands by going further to contact and follow his instructions. This is the words of someone who has felt the pains of being infected and affected with genital Herpes virus and finally got cured after drinking a natural herbal medicine from dr excel the herbalist after being diagnosed for 4years. I am a witness today that herbal medication can cure genital herpes because I have just test negative for the second time and all the symptoms were totally gone. you should contact Doctor Excel by visiting his website Excelherbalcure.com

  27. Visit_______ R obinson buc ler (gm a I l. C om)

    Got rid of HSV,…..

    I am a satisfied client..

    Don’t let hsv ruin your life.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top