I have received many questions about whether immunizing with Reston virus could protect against infection with Ebola virus. Usually the question comes together with the statement ‘because Reston virus does not cause disease in humans’. I can think of two reasons why a Reston virus vaccine is not a good idea.
There have been very few confirmed human infections with Reston virus (4 according to Fields Virology 6th Edition), and although these individuals did not show signs of disease, the number is too small to make any conclusions. For example, if the case fatality ratio of Reston virus in humans were 1%, we might not have yet seen any deaths due to the small number of confirmed infections. However if we were to immunize a million people with a Reston virus vaccine, and the case fatality ratio were 1%, there would be 10,000 deaths, obviously an unacceptable rate for a vaccine. As the virus causes disease in nonhuman primates, and there are so few human infections, it is not possible to know the case fatality ratio.
The other problem is that in general, infection with one of the Ebolaviruses does not confer protection against the others*. For example, animals that survive challenge with Ebola virus (Zaire) are not protected from infection with Sudan virus. For this reason, vaccines need to be prepared against representatives of all the species. I am not aware of any animal studies that have assessed whether Reston virus infection protects from infection with the other Ebolaviruses, but there is no reason to believe that such cross-protection would be achieved.
Vaccines are currently being tested against Ebola virus (species Zaire ebolavirus), cause of the outbreak in west Africa.
*Thanks to Andrea Marzi for information on cross-protection.